Do you know the properties of surfactants


Release time:

2023-12-05

Both vesicles and micelles are such aggregates, and the concentration at which surfactants begin to form micelles is called the critical micelle concentration or CMC. When micelles form in water, the tails of the micelles form nuclei that can wrap around oil droplets, while their (ionic/polar) heads form shells that maintain contact with water. Surfactants aggregate in oil, and aggregation refers to reverse micelles. In reverse micelles, the head is located at the core and the tail maintains sufficient contact with the oil. Surfactants are usually divided into four categories: anions, cations, non-ions, and zwitterions (double electrons). The thermodynamics of surfactant systems is important both in theory and practice. Because surfactant systems represent the system between ordered and disordered material states. Surfactant solutions may contain ordered phases (micelles) and disordered phases (free surfactant molecules and/or ions). The lipophilic end of micelle surfactant molecules aggregates within the micelle to avoid contact with polar water molecules; The polar hydrophilic end of the molecule is exposed to the outside and interacts with polar water molecules to protect the hydrophobic groups inside the micelle. The compounds that form micelles are usually amphiphilic molecules, so in addition to being soluble in polar solvents such as water, micelles can also be soluble in non-polar solvents in the form of reverse micelles.

For example, commonly used detergents can increase the permeability of water in soil, but this effect only lasts for a few days (many standard laundry detergents contain certain amounts of chemicals, such as sodium and bromine, which are not suitable for soil as they can damage plants). Will commercial soil wetting agents continue to work for a period of time? It will still be degraded by microorganisms. However, some products can have an impact on the biological cycle of aquatic organisms, so care must be taken to prevent them from flowing into surface runoff, and excess products should not be washed away.